Full Marks: 90
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Mahatma Gandhi has laid great stress on Satyagraha in his thoughts. Satyagraha means pursuance of truth. It means striving for truth even by undergoing physical pain. Gandhi relied on the methods of non-violence to strive for truth. Thus it was agreeable to him to suffer physical hardship for the sake of truth. He used to accept Satyagraha not simply as a means but as a principle by itself. He himself had written that Satyagraha is a spiritual principle based on love for mankind. There is no feeling of hatred towards the opponents in it. He used to regard Satyagraha as the most potent force. In ‘Hind Swaraj’ he wrote, “Passive resistance (Satyagraha) is an all-sided sword, it can be used anyhow. It blesses him who uses it and him against whom it is used without drawing a drop of bold. It produces far reaching results. It never rusts and cannot be stolen.”
Gandhi considered four conditions to be necessary for a Satyagraha. He stated, ‘After a great deal of experience it seems to me that those who want to become passive resisters for service of the country have to (1) observe perfect chastity, (2) adopt poverty, (3) follow truth and (4) cultivate fearlessness.
Gandhi used to give enough stress on morality. In his view truth was the essence of morality.