Sunday, November 13, 2016

Fundamentals of Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise:
Entrepreneur: The word “entrepreneur” is derived from the French word entreprendre which means to initiate or undertake. In the early sixteenth century, the Frenchmen who organised and led military expeditions were referred to as “entrepreneurs”. The term entrepreneur was applied to business in the early eighteenth century by French Economist Richard Cantillon. According to him, the entrepreneur buys factor services at certain prices with a view to sell their products at uncertain prices in the future. Richard Cantillon conceived of an entrepreneur as a bearer of non-insurable risk.
 An entrepreneur is a person who starts an enterprise. He searches for change and responds to it. A number of definitions have been given of an entrepreneur. The economists view him as a fourth factor of production along with land labour and capital. The sociologists feel that certain communities and cultures promote entrepreneurship. Some others feel that entrepreneurs are innovators who come up with new ideas for products, markets or techniques. Some of the popular definitions are given below:
J.B. Say: An entrepreneur is an economic agent who unites all means of production- land of one, the labour of another and the capital of yet another and thus produces a product. By selling the product in the market he pays rent of land, wages to labour, interest on capital and what remains is his profit. He shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield.
Schumpeter: According to him entrepreneurs are innovators who use a process of shattering the status quo of the existing products and services, to set up new products, new services.
David McClleland: An entrepreneur is a person with a high need for achievement [N-Ach]. He is energetic and a moderate risk taker.
Peter Drucker: An entrepreneur searches for change, responds to it and exploits opportunities. Innovation is a specific tool of an entrepreneur hence an effective entrepreneur converts a source into a resource.

To put it very simply an entrepreneur is someone who perceives opportunity, organizes resources needed for exploiting that opportunity and exploits it.
Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship can be described as a process of action an entrepreneur undertakes to establish his enterprise. It is a creative activity. It is the ability to create and build something from practically nothing. It is a knack of sensing opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction and confusion.
Entrepreneurship is the attitude of mind to seek opportunities, take calculated risks and derive benefits by setting up a venture. It comprises of numerous activities involved in conception, creation and running an enterprise.
According to Peter Drucker Entrepreneurship is defined as ‘a systematic innovation, which consists in the purposeful and organized search for changes, and it is the systematic analysis of the opportunities such changes might offer for economic and social innovation.’
Entrepreneurship is a discipline with a knowledge base theory. It is an outcome of complex socio economic, psychological, technological, legal and other factors. It is a dynamic and risky process. It involves a fusion of capital, technology and human talent. Entrepreneurship is equally applicable to big and small businesses, to economic and non-economic activities.
Enterprise: Entrepreneur is a person who starts an enterprise. The process of creation is called entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur is the actor and entrepreneurship is the act. The outcome of the actor and the act is called the enterprise. An enterprise is the business organization that is formed and which provides goods and services, creates jobs, contributes to national income, exports and overall economic development.
Distinguish between the terms entrepreneur and entrepreneurship.
Though both the terms entrepreneur and entrepreneurship are almost similar they possess several differentiating terms with them. The differences between the entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship are as follows:-
An entrepreneur one who undertakes and operates a new enterprise and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks.
Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses generally in responses to identified opportunities.
Entrepreneur is often synonymous with founder.
Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects to major undertakings creating many job opportunities.
The person who starts and operates a business enterprise is an entrepreneur.
The process in which an entrepreneur starts and operates his business enterprise is entrepreneurship.
The entrepreneur is a coordinator as he coordinates all the three elements of production i.e. land, labor and capital.
Entrepreneurship is the coordination maintained by an entrepreneur.
The person who innovates something new is an entrepreneur.
The innovation of something new or the process of innovation is entrepreneurship.
He who leads an enterprise towards its vision thorough leadership, motivation is an entrepreneur.
The way in which an entrepreneur leads his manpower, motivates them for the achievement of the firms goal is entrepreneurship.
He who bears risk of the firm for the sake of making a reasonable profit is an entrepreneur.
The risk bearing practice that is done by an entrepreneur is entrepreneurship.

Comparison of Entrepreneurs, Intrapreneurs, and Traditional Managers
Traditional Managers
Primary motives
Promotional and other Traditional corporate Re­wards, such as office, Staff, and power
Independence, Opportunity to create And money
Independence and Ability to advance in the corporate rewards.
Time Orientation
Short-term meeting quotas and budgets, weekly monthly, quarterly, and the annual planning horizons.
Survival and achieving 5-10 year growth of business.
Between entrepreneurial and traditional managers, depending on urgency to meet self-imposed and corporate timetable.
Delegates and supervises More than direct involvement
Director involvement
Direct involvement more than delegation.
Moderate risk taker
Moderate risk taker
Concerned about status symbols.
No concern about status symbols.
Not concerned about traditional corporate status symbols-desires independence.
Failure and mistakes
Tries to avoid mistakes and surprises
Deals with mistakes and failures.
Attempts to hide risky projects from view until ready.

Traits and Qualities (Characteristics or Matching of situational requirements) of an Entrepreneur:
The true entrepreneur is one who is endowed with more than average capacities in the task of organizing and co-coordinating the various other factors of production. He should be a pioneer, a captain of industry. The supply of such entrepreneurship is however quite limited and all are not endowed with such talent. The modern entrepreneur is one who detects and evaluates a new situation in his environment and directs the making of such adjustments in the economic systems as he deems necessary. He conceives a new industrial enterprise, displays considerable initiative, grit and determination in bringing his project to fruition. Some of the qualities of an entrepreneur are mentioned below:
1)      Initiative: Initiation of any business activity should come from the entrepreneur. It is the entrepreneur who takes action that goes beyond job requirements or the demand of the situation. He does things before being asked or forced by the events.
2)      Looking for opportunities: A successful entrepreneur is one who always is on the look for and takes action on opportunities. He must be always in readiness to exploit it in maximizing the interest of the organization.
3)      Persistence: An entrepreneur should take repeated actions to overcome the obstacles that get in the way of reaching goals. He should never be disheartened by failures. He should believe in the Japanese proverb, "Fall seven times, and stand up eight".
4)      Information seeking: An entrepreneur is always in search of new ideas and information’s from various sources to help reach objectives or clarify problems. He can consult experts for business or technical advice. He personally undertakes research, analysis or investigation on his own to get information in realizing his goals.
5)      Concern for quality products: Successful entrepreneurs always believe in high quality standards of their products with reasonable prices. They believe in excellence. They act to do things that meet or beat existing standards of excellence.
6)      Commitment to work: Successful entrepreneurs do every sacrifice to get the task completed. They put highest priority for accomplishing their objective. They are committed to their work. They also express a concern for satisfying their customers.
7)      Efficiency orientation: Successful entrepreneurs find ways to do things faster with fewer resources at lower costs. They are always interested in devising new methods aimed at promoting efficiency.
8)      Systematic Planning: Entrepreneurs develop and use logical, step-by-step, realistic and proper plans to accomplish their goals. They believe in systematic planning and its proper execution to reach goals.
9)      Problem solving: Successful entrepreneurs are challenging by nature. They always try to find out ways and means to overcome the problems that come in their way. They also identify new and potentially unique ideas to achieve their targets.
10)   Self-Confidence: Successful entrepreneurs must have a strong belief in themselves and in their own abilities. They have full faith and confidence on their own knowledge, skill, and competency to complete a task or meet a challenge. They are not at all cowed down by difficult situations.
11)   Assertiveness: A successful entrepreneur must be assertive in nature so that he can assert his issues with others for promotion of interest of his enterprise. He tells others what they have to do and rebuke or disciplines those failing to perform as expected.
12)   Persuasion: A successful entrepreneur must be able to persuade others to do the work the way he wants them to do. He is able to convince others through his knowledge and competence. He asserts strong confidence in his own company's product or services. He must possess the ability to convince everybody - sellers, consumers, employees, creditors etc.
Functions of an Entrepreneur:
An entrepreneur frequently has to wear many hats. He has to perceive opportunity, plan, organize resources, and oversee production, marketing, and liaison with officials. Most importantly he has to innovate and bear risk. The main functions of an entrepreneur are as follows:
1. Innovation: Innovation is one of the most important functions of an entrepreneur according to Schumpeter. An entrepreneur uses information, knowledge and intuition to come up with new products, new methods of reducing costs of a product, improvement in design or function of a product, discovering new markets or new ways of organization of industry. Through innovation, an entrepreneur converts a material into a resource or combines existing resources into new and more productive configurations. It is the creativity of an entrepreneur that results in invention [creation of new knowledge] and innovation [application of knowledge to create new products, services or processes.] Systematic innovation means monitoring the following for innovative opportunity:
Ø  The unexpected success or failure or any unexpected outside event, (e.g. when the IT bubble burst the ITES sector started growing.)
Ø  Innovation based on process need [e.g. plate based cameras, film based cameras, digital cameras]
Ø  Changes in industry and market structure [e.g. video cassette VCD, DVD, Blue ray disc]
Ø  Demographics changes (e.g. increasing number of working women and nuclear families in most metropolitan cities)
Ø  New knowledge (e.g. Pentium chip)
2. Risk and uncertainty bearing: According to Hozelist an entrepreneur performs the function of risk and uncertainty bearing. Every decision pertaining to development of new products, adapting new technologies, opening up new markets involves risk. Decision-making in an environment of uncertainty requires anticipation of risk. Profit is said to be the reward for anticipating and taking such risks. However it is pertinent to mention that the entrepreneur is not a gambler, he only takes calculated risks. An entrepreneur develops the art of decision making under conditions of uncertainty as a matter of survival.
3. Organization building: An entrepreneur has to organize men, material and other resources. He has to perform the functions of planning, co-ordination and control. He has to use his leadership qualities to build a team, generate resources and solve problems. With his organizational skills an entrepreneur builds an enterprise from scratch, nurtures it and makes it grow. His vision sows the seeds for a sound and vibrant organization and synergies are built in the enterprise.
According to Kilby in a developing country even the imitator entrepreneurs are very important and the entrepreneurial role encompasses the following:
a)      Perception of market opportunities
b)      Gaining command over scarce resources
c)       Purchasing inputs
d)      Marketing the products
e)      Dealing with bureaucrats
f)       Managing human relations within the firm
g)      Managing customer and supplier relations
h)      Managing finance
i)        Managing production
j)        Acquiring and overseeing assembly of the factory
k)      Industrial engineering
l)        Upgrading process and product
m)    Introducing new production techniques and products
Types of Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs are classified as under different heads as given below. This helps the potential entrepreneurs to choose his own nature and style of entrepreneurship.
a) According to the Type of Business: Entrepreneurs are found in various types of business occupations of varying size. We may broadly classify them as follows:
Business Entrepreneur: Business entrepreneurs are individuals who conceive an idea for a new product or service and then create a business to materialize their idea into reality. They tap both production and marketing resources in their search to develop a new business opportunity. They may set up a big establishment or a small business unit.
Trading entrepreneur: Trading entrepreneur is one who undertakes trading activities and is not concerned with the manufacturing work. He identifies potential markets, stimulates demand for his product line and creates a desire and interest among buyers to go in for his product. He is engaged in both domestic and overseas trade.
Industrial Entrepreneur: Industrial entrepreneur is essentially a manufacturer who identifies the potential needs of customers and tailors product or service to meet the marketing needs. He is a product oriented man who starts in an industrial unit because of the possibility of making some new product.
Corporate Entrepreneur: Corporate entrepreneur is essentially a manufacturer who identifies the potential needs of customers and tailors product or service to meet the marketing needs. He is a product oriented man who starts in an industrial unit because of the possibility of making some new product.
Agricultural Entrepreneur: Agricultural entrepreneurs are those entrepreneurs who undertake such agricultural activities as raising and marketing of crops, fertilizers and other inputs of agriculture. According to the use of Technology.
Technical Entrepreneur: A technical entrepreneur is essentially an entrepreneur of “Craftsman type”. He develops a new and improved quality of goods because of his craftsmanship. He concentrates more on production than marketing.
Non-technical Entrepreneur: Non-technical entrepreneurs are those who are not concerned with the technical aspects of the product in which they deal. They are concerned only with developing alternative marketing and distribution strategies to promote their business.
Professional Entrepreneur: Professional entrepreneur is a person who is interested in establishing a business but does not have interest in managing or operating it once it is established.
b) According to Motivation: Motivation is the force that influences the efforts of the entrepreneur to achieve his objectives. An entrepreneur is motivated to achieve or prove his excellence in job performance. He is also motivated to influence others by demonstrating his power thus satisfying his ego.
Pure Entrepreneur: A pure entrepreneur is an individual who is motivated by psychological and economic rewards. He undertakes an entrepreneurial activity for his personal satisfaction in work, ego or status.
Induced Entrepreneur: Induced entrepreneur is one who is being induced to take up an entrepreneurial task due to the policy measures of the government that provides assistance, incentives, concessions and necessary overhead facilities to start a venture.
Motivated Entrepreneur: New entrepreneurs are motivated by the desire for self-fulfillment. They come into being because of the possibility of making and marketing some new product for the use of consumers. If the product is developed to a saleable stage, the entrepreneur is further motivated by reward in terms of profit and enlarged customer network.
Spontaneous Entrepreneur: These entrepreneurs start their business out of their natural talents and instinct. They are persons with initiative, boldness and confidence in their ability which motivate them to undertake entrepreneurial activity.
Growth Entrepreneur: Growth entrepreneurs are those who necessarily take up a high growth industry. These entrepreneurs choose an industry which has substantial growth prospects.
Super-Growth Entrepreneur: Super-growth entrepreneur are those who have shown enormous growth of performance in their venture. The growth performance is identified by the liquidity of funds, profitability and gearing.
c) According to Stages of Development
First-Generation Entrepreneur: A first generation entrepreneur is one who starts an industrial unit by means of an innovative skill. He is essentially an innovator, combining different technologies to produce a marketable product or service.
Modern Entrepreneur: A modern entrepreneur is one who undertakes those ventures which go well along with the changing demand in the market. They undertake those ventures which suit the current marketing needs.
Classical Entrepreneur: A classical entrepreneur is one who is concerned with the customers and marketing needs through the development of a self supporting venture. He is a stereo type entrepreneur whose aim is to maximize his economic returns at a level consistent with the survival of the firm with or without an element of growth.
Innovating Entrepreneurs: Innovating entrepreneurship is characterized by aggressive assemblage of information and analysis of results, deriving from a novel combination of factors. Men/women in this group are generally aggressive in experimentation who exhibit cleverness in putting attractive possibilities into practice.
Imitative Entrepreneurs: Imitative entrepreneurship is characterized by readiness to adopt successful innovations by innovating entrepreneurs. They first imitate techniques and technology innovated by others.
Fabian Entrepreneurs: These categories of entrepreneurs are basically running their venture on the basis of conventions and customary practices. They don’t want to introduce change and not interested in coping with changes in environment. They have all sorts of inhibitions, shyness and lethargic attitude. They are basically risk aversor and more cautious in their approach.
Drone Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurs who are reluctant to introduce any changes in their production methods, processes and follow their own traditional style of operations. Though they incur losses and looses their market potential, will not take any effort to overcome the problem. Their products and the firm will get natural death and knockout.
Forced Entrepreneurs: Sometimes, circumstances made many persons to become entrepreneurs. They do not have any plan, forward looking and business aptitude. To mitigate the situational problem, they are forced to plunge into entrepreneurial venture. Most of the may not be successful in this category due to lack of training and exposure.
The entrepreneur is the key to the creation of new enterprises that energise the economy and rejuvenate the established enterprises that make up the economic structure. Entrepreneurs initiate and sustain the process of economic development in the following ways:
1. Capital formation: Entrepreneurs mobilise the idle savings of the public through the issues of industrial securities. Investment of public savings in industry results in productive utilisation of national resources. Rate of capital formation increases which is essential for rapid economic growth. Thus, an entrepreneur is the creator of wealth.
2. Improvement in per capita income: Entrepreneurs locate and exploit opportunities. They convert the talent and idle resources like land, labour and capital into national income and wealth in the form of goods and services. They help to increase net national product and per capita income in the country, which are important yardsticks for measuring economic growth.
3. Improvement in living standards: Entrepreneurs set up industries which remove scarcity of essential commodities and introduce new products. Production of goods on mass scale and manufacture of handicrafts, etc., in the small scale sector help to improve the standard of life of a common man. These offer goods at lower costs and increase variety in consumption.
4. Economic independence: Entrepreneurship is essential for national self-reliance. Industrialists help to manufacture indigenous substitutes of hitherto imported products thereby reducing dependence on foreign countries. Businessmen also export goods and services on a large scale and thereby earn the scarce foreign exchange for the country. Such import substitution and export promotion help to ensure the economic independence of the country without which political independence has little meaning.
5. Backward and forward linkages: An entrepreneur initiates change which has a chain reaction. Setting up of an enterprise has several backward and forward linkages. For example, the establishment of a steel plant generates several ancillary units and expands the demand for iron ore, coal, etc. These are backward linkages. By increasing the supply of steel, the plant facilitates the growth of machine building, tube making, utensil manufacturing and such other units.
6. Generation of Employment: Entrepreneurship development training which helps in strengthening informal and unorganised sector is expected to motivate enterprising people to opt for self employment and entrepreneurial career. It will therefore, help in solving the problem of increasing unemployment to some extent.
7. Harnessing Locally Available Resources and Entrepreneurship: India is considered to be very rich in natural resources. In spite of about five decades of planned development a large number of states have remained economically backward. A few large scale industries started by entrepreneurs from outside the state in an economically backward area may help as model of pioneering efforts, but ultimately the real strength of industrialisation in backward areas depends upon the involvement of local entrepreneurship in such activities: Increased activities of local entrepreneurs will also result in making use of abundantly available local resources.
8. Balanced Regional Growth: Medium and large scale industries can only be started with huge investment which is either available with well established industrial houses or need to be drawn from public exchequer. Also, promotion of such industries does not help in reducing disparities of income and wealth. On the other hand, an important advantage of small scale enterprises is that they can be started with meager financial ‘resources and little or no previous experience or entrepreneurial background.
9. Reducing Unrest and Social Tension amongst Youth: Many problems associated with youth unrest and social tensions are rightly considered to be due to youth not being engaged in productive work. In the changing environment where we are faced with the problem of recession in wage employment opportunities, alternative to wage career is the only viable option. The country is required to divert the youth with latent entrepreneurial traits from wage career to self employment career. Such alternate path through entrepreneurship could help the country in defusing social tension and unrest amongst youth.

10. Innovations in Enterprises: Business enterprises need to be innovative for their survival and better performance. It is believed that smaller firms have relatively higher necessity and capability to innovate. The smaller firms do not face the constraints imposed by large investment in existing technology. Thus they are both free and compelled to innovate: The National Science Foundation, an organisation in USA found that small companies produce four times more innovations per research dollar than do bigger companies. Entrepreneurship development programmes are aimed at accelerating the pace of small firms growth in India. Increased number of small firms is expected to result in more innovations and make the Indian industry compete in international market.


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