Forms of Communication
Communication is the transfer of ideas and information from one person to another person. It is a bridge of meaning among people so that they can share what they fell and know. By using this bridge, a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding that sometimes separates people. To make successful communication there are different methods/ ways:
(A) On the basis of location of the receiver: Depending on the location of the receiver there are two types of communication:
1. Internal Communication
2. External Communication
1. Internal Communication: Communication among the members of an organization is known as internal communication. That is when executives and employee of an organization communicate each other within the organization then it will be labeled as internal communication.
2. External Communication: When executives and employees of an organization communicates or exchanges information with outsiders of the organization then it is called external communication.
Both internal and external communication can be subdivided into two types:
i. Formal Communication
ii. Informal Communication
i. Formal Communication: When information exchanged through formal organization channels by following fixed rules then it is knows as formal communication.
ii. Informal Communication: Fixed rules and system cannot prevent people from talking with each other. Thus the communication that takes place within and outside of an organization through unofficial lines can labeled as informal communication.
(B) On the basis of media of presentation: From this point of view communication can be of three types:
(1) Written communication
(2) Oral / Verbal Communication
(3) Non-Verbal Communication
(1) Written Communication: When information, ideas, or feelings exchange in written form that is known as written communication. Written communication has its own importance and for some particular purposes it has no other alternatives.
(2) Oral / Verbal Communication: It is a process of communication through words. Verbal communication consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns. Oral communication normally takes place in a face to face situation. It may be formal or informal.
(3) Non-Verbal Communication: Communication without using words or writings known as non-verbal communication. In other words, non-verbal communication means communication through physical movements and facial expressions. Gestures, posture, eye movements, etc. are examples of non-verbal communication.
(C) On the Basis of Information flow: Depending on the flow of information there are different types of communication:
(1) Vertical Communication
(2) Horizontal Communication
(3) Cross / Diagonal Communication
(1) Vertical Communication: When communication takes place between superior and subordinates than it is known as vertical communication. Here flow of information can be of two types:
(i) Downward: it is the flow of information from higher authority to lower authority.
(ii) Upward: Here the flow of information goes to higher authority from subordinates.
(2) Horizontal Communication: This type of communication flows between employees of equal level.
(3) Cross / Diagonal Communication: Communication across the formal chain of command is known as cross or diagonal communication. In this case executives and employees of different departments and of different levels communicate each other without maintaining the official channels.
(D) Other forms of Communication: Besides the above types of communication there can be some other forms of communication like mass communication.
Mass Communication: When communication takes place among large group of people then it can be termed as mass communication. There is no formal system for mass communication, it is situational. For different social and political purposes mass communication can takes place.