Meaning of the term “Communication”
The term communication is derived from a Latin word „communis‟ which means common. This means establishing a common ground. Now whatever is common is shared by all. But what is that which is shared by all in communication? It is fact, ideas, understanding, opinions, information etc.
In the words of Newman, Summer & Warren, “communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions by two or more persons.”
According to Keith Davis, “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.”
Communication should not be interpreted as merely sending or receiving messages. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. It is a two way process and is complete only when there is some response from the receiver of information.
Nature or Characteristics of communication
An analysis of various definitions of communication revel the nature or characteristics of communication which are as follows:-
1. Communication involves at least two persons: Communication involves at least two persons the sender and the receiver. The sender sends the messages and is known as the communicator. The receiver receives the message and is known as communicate.
2. Communication is a two way process: Communication is essentially a two way process. It does not merely means sending and receiving messages. It is not complete unless and until the message has been understood by the receiver in the same sense.
3. Purpose of communication: This basic purpose of communication is to create an understanding. The receiver should understand the message sent and should response accordingly.
4. Form of communication: Communication may take several form e.g. order, instruction, report, queries etc. it may be verbal or written. It may be formal or informal.
5. Scope of communication: communication pervades all human relationship. It is essential in all type of organizational and at all levels of management.
6. Communication is a dynamic process: Communication is influenced by the mood and thinking of the sender and receiver. The way a message is accepted depends upon the fact that which of the fine sensory organs of the receiver is active at that time.
7. Communication is much more than words: Communication is not merely sending or receiving facts, expressed in words. It also involves ideas and emotions. A lot of communication is done through signs, symbols and gestures.
8. Communication is a goal oriented process: Communication is a goal oriented and effective only when there is congruence of goals of sender and receiver.
9. Communication is conversational: Communication sets up a link between facts, ideas and thus helps the communicator and communicates to progress logically.
10. Communication is an interdisciplinary science: Communication to be effective derives knowledge from several sciences like anthropology (study of body language), sociology (study of human bahaviour), psychology (study of attitude) etc.
Objectives of Business Communication
The objectives of business communication is wide and large. Information, Order, permission, Warning, Motivation, Advice and Raising morale are activated through the means of communication. The objectives of business communication are stated below:
1. To Exchange Information: The prime objective of communication is to exchange information internally and externally i.e. to deal within the organization and outside the organization.
2. To Achieve Goal: The goal of the organization can be obtained through effective organizational communication. Everybody tries to acquire such goal and therefore it requires effective organizational communication.
3. To Maintain Co-ordination and Co-operation: Co-ordination and co-operation among three levels i.e. corporate level, divisional level and functional level of an Organization are maintained through communication.
4. To Plan: Planning decides what is to be done in future. All the information and data which are required to make a plan for business can be obtained or gathered through communication.
5. To Facilitate Direction and Motivation: The boss gives direction or order to his subordinate. And managers need to motivate their employees to increase the concentration and productivity. Hence, communication helps to facilitate direction and motivation.
6. Communication can provide information regarding past and present. It also helps to anticipate about future. So, Communication increase efficiency of the workers by providing instant information.
7. To Solve Problem: Communication can remove the gap between employees and employer. Fruitful communication ensures a network in an Organization to solve problems. Conflict arises and exists in an Organization. Fruitful communication ensures a network to solve conflict. It also remove the gap between employee and employer.
8. To Create Consciousness: Communication helps both employer and employee to be conscious about their respective roles, duties and activities. As a result, responsibility and accountability is located among the concerned persons.
9. To Increase Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction requires better job environment and better job environment is possible if there exists communication chain. Strong chain helps to overcome job related stress.
10. To Improve Employer-Employee Relationship: To achieve the Organizational objectives, there must be good relationship between employee and employer. And to improve such relationship, there must be effective communication.
11. To Manage Human Resources: To recruit, train-up & motivate human resource properly, There must be effective communication. Skilled manpower are professional and work for achievement and development.
12. To Attract Customer: To knock the door of potential customers with new product and service of an enterprise, there should exist an efficient communication. So better communication will cause more customers and more customers will cause more profit.