Control is one of the managerial functions. These functions start with planning and end at controlling. The other functions like organizing, staffing, directing act as the connecting like between planning and controlling. Planning will be successful only if the progress planning and controlled, Planning involves setting up of goals and objectives while controlling seeks to ensure.
In the words of Koontz and O'Donnel, “The measurement and correction of the performance of activities of subordinates in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and plan devised to attain them are being accomplished." The accomplishment of organizational goals is the main aim of every management. The performance of subordinates should be constantly watched to ensure proper implementation of plans. Co-ordination is the channel through which goals can be achieved and necessary.
According to Henry Fayol, “In an undertaking, control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted, the instructions issued and principles established. It has to point out weakness and errors in order to rectify them and prevent recurrence”.
According to George Terry “Controlling is determining what is being accomplished, that is, evaluating the performance and, if necessary, applying corrective measures so that the performance takes place according to plans”.
Thus, controlling implies determining and stating specifically what is to be accomplished, then checking performance against such standards prescribed with a view to supplying the corrective action required to achieve the planned objectives. The end objective of controlling is, therefore, to ensure that the people’s effort in the organization is continuously directed towards the attainment of the predetermined objectives.
Nature or Characteristics of Control
1) Managerial Function
2) Dynamic Process
3) Continuous Activity
4) Forward Looking
5) Control is related to planning
1) Control is a function of management: It is, in fact, a follow-up action to the other functions of management. All the managers in the organization to control the activities assigned to them perform this function.
2) Control is a dynamic process: It involves continuous review of standards of performance and results in corrective action, which may lead to changes in other functions of management.
3) Control is a continuous activity: It does not stop anywhere. According to : Koontz and O’Donnell, “Just as the navigator continually takes reading to a planned action, so should so should be the business s manager continually take reading to assure himself that his enterprise or : department is on course”.
4) Control is forward looking: It is related to future, as past cannot be controlled. It is usually preventive as the presence of control systems leads to minimize wastages, losses, and deviations from standards. It should be noted that control does not curtail the rights of the individuals. It simply keeps a check on the performance of individuals.
5) Planning and Controlling are closely related with each other: Managerial planning seeks consistent and integrated while managerial control seeks to compel events to conform to plans. As a matter of fact, planning is based on control and control is based on planning. The process of control uses certain standards for measuring performance, which are laid down by planning. The control process, in turn, may reveal the deficiency of planning and may lead to the revision of planning. It may also lead to setting of new goals, changing the organizational structure, improving staffing and making major changes in the techniques of directing.