Tuesday, December 31, 2013

UGC - NET: Answer Key Dec'2013 (Commerce Paper II)

UGC – NET: Answer Key Dec’ 2013 Exam
Commerce: Paper II

Q.1. (C) RBI

Q.2. (B) (iii)         (iv)         (i)            (ii)

Q.3. (c) Environmental Protection

Q.4. (A) WTO

Thursday, December 26, 2013

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Traditional and Modern Concept of Marketing

Traditional concept of marketing
According to this concept, marketing consists of those activities which are concerned with the transfer of ownership of goods from producers to consumers. Thus, marketing means selling of goods and services. In other words, it is the process by which goods are made available to ultimate consumers from their place of origin. The traditional concept of marketing corresponds to the general notion of marketing, which means selling goods and services after they have been produced. The emphasis of marketing is on sale of goods and services. Consumer satisfaction is not given adequate emphasis. Viewed in this way, marketing is regarded as production/sales oriented.

Tuesday, December 24, 2013

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. This theory, popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs as given in the diagram:

Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance,

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Section 80 (G)

A.      Allowable to all kind of Assessee
B.      Donation to Foreign Trust:  Donations made to foreign trusts do not qualify for deduction
C.      Donation to Political Parties: We cannot claim deduction for donations made to political parties for any reason
D.      Only donation made to made to prescribed funds and institutions qualify for deduction
E.       Maximum allowable deduction: If aggregate of the sums donated exceed 10% of the adjusted gross total income, the amount in excess of 10% ceases to be entitled for tax benefit.

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Narrow and Broad Money
Modern money has several components. Apart from just cash and coins, money also consists of deposits with the banking system, both interest-free demand deposits and interest-bearing time deposits, such as fixed deposits. The various components of money can be aggregated together in order of liquidity. Since money is primarily used to settle day-to-day transactions, it needs to be readily usable as a means of doing so. Clearly, cash and coins are the most liquid forms of money, since they can be used instantaneously and universally used to settle unlimited transactions. Demand deposits, or accounts with banks, are also quite liquid, as they can be used to write cheques against, in settling daily transactions. The sum of currency in circulation and demand deposits with banks are called M1, or 'narrow money'.

Monday, December 23, 2013

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Consumer Protection Act, 1986
Features of Consumer Protection Act are:
·         The Act applies to all goods and services unless specially exempted by Union Government.
·         It covers all sectors – public, private or cooperative.
·         Provisions of the Act are compensatory in nature.
·         It contains 6 consumers’ rights - to choose, to be heard, to be informed, to safety, education and redressal.

Sunday, December 22, 2013

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Product Life Cycle
A product is like a human being. It is born, grows up fast, matures and then finally passes away. Product life cycle is the stages through which a product or its category bypass. From its introduction to the marketing, growth, maturity to its decline or reduce in demand in the market.  Not all products reach this final stage, some continue to grow and some rise and fall. Inshort, The PLC discusses the stages which a product has to go through since the day of its birth to the day it is taken away from the market.

The Product life cycle deals with four stages of a products life. Stages of Product life cycle:
A) Introduction: The stage 1 is where the product is launched. A product launch is always risky. If the product has no or few competitors, a skimming price strategy is employed. Characteristics of Introductory stages of Product life cycle:

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Important Acts
Year of Passing
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act
Asian Development Bank Act                           
Banking Companies Regulation Act                         
Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985                                                    
Central Sales Tax Act                                                                                     
Chartered Accountants Act                                                                                        
Companies Act                                                                                                                 
Company Secretaries Act                                                                                            

Thursday, December 19, 2013

ASSAM SLET - Dec'2013 Exam Answer Key - Subject Commerce Paper II

Subject – Commerce

Ques.1. (D) Both (B) and (C)

Ques.2. (D) 1956 [Basically in was in 1948]

Ques.3. (A) Dumping

Ques.4. (B) Privatization

Monday, December 16, 2013

ASSAM SLET - Dec'2013 Exam Answer Key of General Paper (CODE - X)


Ques.1. While teaching English ……………
Ans: (A) I and II

Ques.2. Arrange the following teaching ……………..
Ans: (C)


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